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Schumann Resonances,

Geomagnetic Reversals, and

Human Brain States:

Just as a tuning fork has natural frequencies for sound, 
the planet Earth has natural frequencies, 
called Schumann resonances, 
for electromagnetic radiation.  
The Human Brain also has natural frequencies 
for electromagnetic radiation.  
It turns out that the Earth's Schumann resonances are 
"in tune" with the Human Brains's Alpha States and Theta States. 

The fundamental frequency of the Schumann resonance is roughly the fundamental frequency of a spherical shell whose inside boundary is the surface of the Earth and whose outside boundary is the ionosphere, acting as a spherical shell electromagnetic waveguide cavity.   The fundamental frequency ought to be roughly the time it takes electromagnetic radiation to go all the way around the spherical shell.   Since the speed of light is about 300,000 km/sec and one cycle is the circumference of the Earth, which is about 40,000 km/cycle   the fundamental frequency should be on the order of 300,000 km/sec _____________________ = 7.5 cycle/sec 40,0000 km/cycle     A cycle/sec is just a Hz, so that 7.5 cycle/sec is 7.5 Hz.   The Schumann Resonances are actually observed by experiment to occur at several frequencies between 6 and 50 cycles per second; specifically 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hertz, with a daily variation of about +/- 0.5 Hertz.   The 7.8 Hz observed fundamental resonance is close to the rough theoretical estimate of 7.5 Hz.   So long as the properties of Earth's electromagnetic cavity remains about the same, these frequencies remain the same.   The solar sunspot cycle may change the frequencies, because the Earth's ionosphere changes in response to the 11-year cycle of solar activity.   The fundamental frequency could be varied due to a number of things:   the strength and configuration of Earth's magnetic field, which has been weakening for the past 2,000 years;   the composition and properties of the atmosphere;   the location and properties of the ionosphere;   the ionosphere is linked to the magnetosphere by Alfven waves;   the solar sunspot cycle;   electromagnetic storms from the sun;   electromagnetic properties of the Earth, such as   "earthquake lights",   Project HAARP,   thunderstorms,
       elves, sprites, and jets, as illustrated and 
       described in July 1997 Discover magazine, 
       and so on.
If you look at the interior of the Earth, you see that there is 
a differential physical rotation of the solid inner core 
with respect to the surface of the Earth.  
However, it takes about 400 years for the inner core 
to make a complete revolution inside the Earth, so that 
its frequency is only one cycle per 400 years. 
It is more interesting to look at 
the frequency of currents at the boundary 
between the solid inner core and the liquid outer core.  
Since the inner core has radius of about 1,200 kilometers, 
its circumference is about 7,500 kilometers.  
How long would it take an electrical current, 
travelling at the speed of light (300,000 km/sec), 
to go once around the circumference of the inner core (7,500 km)? 
That is about 7,500 km  /  300,000 km/sec,  or  1/40 sec.  
In other words, the natural frequency of the Earth at the 
boundary of the inner core is about 40 cycles/sec, 
which is at the upper end of the range of frequencies 
measured for the 
Schumann resonances:  7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hertz. 
Therefore, the Schumann resonance frequencies 
correspond to the range of natural frequencies of the Earth 
from its surface to the boundary of its solid inner core.  
Research on Schumann resonances is done 
by Dave Sentman and Matt Heavner in Alaska.

  The weakening of the Earth's magnetic field over the past 2,000 years that has been observed may indicate the onset of another magnetic field reversal. The last reversal of Earth's magnetic field was about 788,000 years ago.  
The map (taken from the cover of Nature, illustrating the 
article of Lau, Mazaud, Weeks, Fuller, and Herrero-Bervera, 
Nature vol. 351 (6 June 1991) page 447) 
shows movement of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) 
from its present position near the Earth's axial north pole 
during excursions and reversals that occurred 
about 120,000 years ago, about 1.8 million years ago, 
about 6.5 million years ago, and about 11 million years ago. 
The VGP primarily moves between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 
and the Pacific West Coast of the Americas,
secondarily it moves along the Asian Pacific Rim, 
sometimes it seems to be located at the antipodal area of 
the center of the Pacific Ocean, in the region of Giza. 
Jim Branson (e-mail: 
has noted that Schumann Resonance data 
from show a daily periodicity for the 
peaks of BT1 (North-South component) and BT2 (East-West component).  
The BT1 peaks (East-West Schumann component) 
seem to be when the subsolar longitude (local noon) 
is about 8 hours west of Greenwich, 
which is along the North American West Coast,
where the tectonic motion is North-South shearing. 
The BT2 peaks (North-South Schumann component) 
seem to be when the subsolar longitude (local noon) 
is about 2 hours west of Greenwich, 
which is along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,
where the tectonic motion is East-West spreading. 
Therefore, the BT1 and BT2 peak longitudes seem to 
mark the boundaries of the primary zone of VGP movement 
during geomagnetic excursions and reversals.  

  The natural frequencies of the Human Brain are: Beta waves (14 to 30 Hz), Alpha waves (8 to 13 Hz), Theta waves (4 to 7 Hz), and Delta waves (1 to 3 Hz).   Alpha frequencies have been associated with meditation and relaxation. Theta frequencies have been associated with a dreamy, creative states.

According to a web page related to an October 2002 Physics News Update: "... EEGs can now record brainwaves without the need for electrodes to be inserted into the brain or even for them to be placed on the scalp. The figure shows a brainwave trace for periods when the eyes are open and when they are closed.

The red regions respond to the alpha wave (eyes closed) at a frequency of around 9 Hz. (Courtesy University of Sussex) ...".

The Beta and Alpha waves (8 to 30 Hz) seem 
to correspond to the 
Schumann resonances:  7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hertz. 

The 30 Hz high end of the Beta waves is roughly coincident 
with the frequency of cats' purrs: 

According to an 18 March 2001 article in the London Telegraph by David Harrison: "... the purring of cats is a "natural healing mechanism" ... between 27 and 44 hertz ... was the dominant frequency for a house cat, and 20-50Hz for the puma, ocelot, serval, cheetah and caracal. This reinforces studies confirming that exposure to frequencies of 20-50Hz strengthens human bones and helps them to grow. ... Almost all cats purr, including lions and cheetahs, though not tigers. ...". However, according to a Bengal Tiger web page: "... [Bengal] tigers purr. Domestic cats purr when breathing in and out -- tigers purr only when [breathing] out. ... the roar of a Bengal tiger can be heard 2 miles away ... the Siberian tiger, a cousin of the Bengal tiger, is the world's largest cat ...".

What about the Theta and Delta Waves (1 to 7 Hz)? 
The 1 Hz frequency of the Delta waves is 7.5 times lower 
than the 7.5 Hz natural frequency at the surface of the Earth. 
Since the radius of the Earth is about 6,400 km, 
the radius for a 1 Hz natural frequency is 
about 7.5 x 6,400 = 48,000 km. 
Here are some natural frequencies that seem to correspond 
to the Delta and Theta waves of the Human Brain.  
Plasma Sheet (opposite Sun), 
inner radius                   =  60,000 km   0.8 Hz
Magnetopause (toward Sun), 
radius                         =  60,000 km   0.8 Hz 
Geosynchronous orbit, 
radius                         =  35,000 km   1.4 Hz
Outer Van Allen electron belt, 
outer radius                   =  25,000 km   2 Hz 
Inner Van Allen proton belt, 
outer radius                   =  12,000 km   4 Hz 
Inner Van Allen proton belt, 
inner radius                   =   8,400 km   5.7 Hz 
As to the following frequencies: 
(opposite Sun),  radius        = 380,000 km   0.125 Hz 
Plasma Sheet 
(opposite Sun), outer radius   = 380,000 km   0.125 Hz 
Moon orbit, 
radius                         = 384,000 km   0.125 Hz
it is interesting that 0.125 Hz is about 8 seconds per cycle, 
which is roughly the same period as the 5 second delay 
that has been observed between 
the onset of a 1 to 2 millitesla magnetic field 
(about 100 times stronger than Earth's magnetic field) 
and the first bursts of brain activity 
responding to the magnetic field.  
(See Science 260 (11 June 1993) 1590.)
Low-frequency electromagnetic waves of humans may be 
associated with Qi.  If so, Qi may be detectable physically.  

The Qi Field is one of the promising New Technologies.

The microtubule structure of brains and other cells may 
be the key to phenomena such as consciousness.  
Human brain wave activity can be compared to that of Dolphins.  
Some experiments show connections between 
the brain states and resonant electromagnetic waves, 
raising the possibility that the Human Brain 
has evolved to be "in tune" with Planet Earth.  

Dolphin and Human Brains may contain BioMagnetite that could give them an electromagnetic sense that could provide a link between Brains and many types of electromagnetic phenomena, including but not limited to Schumann Resonance Phenomena.


Steve Mizrach (Seeker1) has web pages that describe 
Mind Machines, or devices that affect state of mind 
by stimuli such as light, sound, electricity, and chemicals.   
Dave Siever (Comptronic Devices) has web pages that describe 
some of the history of mind stimulation by light and sound. 
An example of mind stimulation by light 
is part of the initiation ceremony of Zoroastrianism.  
Some of these matters were dealt with in the Tucson Conferences 
in 1994 and 1996 on the phenomena of consciousness. 
A third Tucson Conference is planned for 1998.   
Related Mind and Consciousness phenomena 
include Parapsychological Phenomena 
such as found by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research, 
the Boundary Institute,
the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory (STARGATE), 
and such as described by Jack Sarfatti, Brian Josephson, 
and Jessica Utts. 

      For material on this page, I have benefitted from communications with J. C. Paul, Michael Gibbs, and Jim Branson (e-mail: However, they are not responsible for any incorrect speculations.      


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